The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto (독도/獨島, literally "solitary island") in Korean, and Takeshima (たけしま/竹島?, literally "bamboo island") in Japanese, are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan consisting of two main islands and 35 smaller rocks. The rocks ( 0.18745 square kilometers) were accidentally discovered by the French whaler Le Liancourt in 1849 and was terra nulius until the Russo-Japanese war when the strategically important rocks officially became part of Japan.
The dispute on the islets between Japan and South Korea started when South Korean Patriotic Old Men's Association demanded that the MacArthur line established after World War II continue to be enforced in August 1948, though on August 10, 1951, the United States sent Korean Ambassador Yang You Chan the Rusk documents, stating that the official policy of the United States was that the "MacArthur line" would be abolished by the Treaty of San Francisco, which was was signed on September 8, 1951, by 49 countries, about a month after the documents were sent, and was to come into effect on April 28, 1952.
In response, the South Korean government declared the "Syngman Rhee Line" three months before this date, when the extinction of the MacArthur line and the return of sovereignty to Japan were meant to be established. Since the South Korean president, Syngman Rhee, deployed the South Korean Coast Guard to the islets in January 1952, South Korea has occupied the area without any legal consent from either the Japanese government or the United Nations.
In 1991, the South Korean government sent two South Korean citizens to the Liancourt Rocks, an octopus fisherman and his wife, to be permanent residents on the islets. A small South Korean national police detachment, administrative personnel, and lighthouse staff are assigned to the islets.
According to the Report of Van Fleet Mission to Far East made in 1954, the U.S. government maintained that the one-sided declaration of the Syngman Rhee Line was illegal under international law.
The illegal occupation of the islands was not the only achievement of US educated, christian Syngman Rhee. Soon after taking office, Rhee enacted laws that severely curtailed political dissent. Many leftist opponents were arrested, and in some cases killed.
His government also oversaw several massacres, including the Jeju massacre on Jeju island, where up to 60,000 rebels and civilians were killed by the Army, and the Bodo League massacre, where estimates ranging from 100,000 to 1.2 million communists, suspected communists, political opponents and innocent bystanders were summarily executed after the start of the Korean War.
Both Rhee and Kim Il Sung (also a christian) wanted to unite the Korean peninsula under their respective governments.
Rhee also wanted stronger methods to be used against the government of Mao Zedong, expressing annoyance that the U.S. was reluctant to bomb China with nuclear weaponry.
Because of widespread discontent with Rhee's corruption and political repression, it was considered unlikely that Rhee would be re-elected by the National Assembly. To circumvent this, Rhee attempted to amend the constitution to allow him to hold elections for the presidency by direct popular vote. When the Assembly rejected this amendment, Rhee ordered a mass arrest of opposition politicians and then passed the desired amendment in July 1952. During the following presidential election, he received 74% of the vote. In 1960, the 84-year old Rhee won his fourth term in office as President with 90% of the vote. The opposition claimed the election was rigged and triggered anger among segments of the Korean public. When police shot demonstrators in Masan, the student-led April Revolution forced Rhee to resign on April 26. In addition to being the object of popular protests, Rhee was accused by Kim Yong Kap, Deputy Minister of Finance, of embezzling more than $20 million in government funds. On April 28, a DC-4 belonging to the United States Central Intelligence Agency flew Rhee out of South Korea as protestors converged on the Blue House.
On April 25, 2006, President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea announced a special dialog about Korea–Japan relation, that demanded Japanese government's actions following the apology of Japan about previous colonization of Korea. In the dialog, he said 'Dokdo is Korean territory, not an ordinary Korean territory, but Korean territory which had been carved with bitter grief. Dokdo is the first Korean territory which was deprived of when Japan colonized Korea. Japan occupied the land for the battles during Russo-Japanese war. He expressed that Japanese claim for Dokdo means a pursuit of the right for the occupied land by imperial invasion, hence the claim for a previous colony. He stated that Dokdo is a symbol of the recovery of Korean sovereignty. This address is related to Japanese plan, announced the day before, for maritime survey around Liancourt Rocks.
In July 2008, the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) changed the name of the country to which Liancourt Rocks belong from South Korea to Undesignated Sovereignty and also changed the name from "Dokdo" to "Liancourt Rocks".
The same change that classified Liancourt Rocks as Undesignated Sovereignty in the BGN database was reversed on July 30 under the order of U.S. President George W. Bush, once again marking the status of Liancourt Rocks under South Korean control.
What ridiculous sarushibai.
In 2012 President Kim became "Mr confort-women", forgetting that in case Japan would have lost the the Russo-Japanese War the rocks would be called Nikolai Islands today, and Soul maybe Alexandragrad , in memory of Alexandra Petrovna Kim the first Korean communist.
By Gabor Fabricius
Alexandra Petrovna Kim (Russian: Александра Петровна Ким; February 22, 1885 – September 16, 1918) was a Korean revolutionary political activist. Having joined the Bolsheviks in 1916, she is recognized as the first Korean communist.
She was born in Sinelnikovo, a Korean village in Siberia. At the time, the area was a hotbed of Korean nationalism. In 1869, her father, Kim Du Suh, had emigrated to Russia. He worked as a translator and then went to Manchuria . In 1895, Alexandra joined him in China.
Japan, China and Korea considered them to be Russian agents and terrorists. Soon after her arrival in China, Kim Du Suh died. Alexandra was adopted by Piotr Stankevich, a Russian friend of her father. She attended girl school in Vladivostok, Siberia. After finishing her education, she began working as a teacher in a primary school. She got married to Stankevich's son. She gave up teaching and moved back to Vladivostok, where she took part in political activities for the cause of Korean migrants.
Her marriage did not last long. She divorced her husband and shifted to the Urals region. In the Urals she began political activism. In 1916, she joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks). In 1917, Lenin sent her to Siberia to mobilize Koreans there against the counter-revolutionary forces and the Allied Expeditionary Forces.
In Khabarovsk she was in charge of external affairs at the Far-Eastern Department of the Party. There she met with Yi Dong-Wi, Kim Rip and other Korean independence fighters. Together they founded the Korean People's Socialist Party in Khabarovsk on June 28, 1918.
North Korea, technically still at war with South Korea, reportedly supports South Korea's claim to the Liancourt Rocks. Thats about the only thing the two Koreas agree upon.
The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in accordance with the Treaty, considers its position "inalterable", while South Korea maintains a nationwide educational program which sends students from 62 elementary, middle, and high schools on field trips to the rocks on a regular basis. The government has also written a textbook about the rocks, intended to be used in elementary schools across the country, and manages a year-round national educational tour.
When Japan's Shimane prefecture announced a "Takeshima Day" in 2005, Koreans reacted with demonstrations and protests throughout the country, extreme examples of which included a mother and son slicing off their own fingers, and a man who set himself on fire.
In 2006, five Korean "Dokdo Riders" embarked on a world tour to raise international awareness of the dispute. The August 10, 2012 visit of the rocks by the President Lee Myung-Bak, made him the first South Korean president to do so. Japan temporarily withdrew its ambassador to South Korea, Masatoshi Muto, and Minister for Foreign Affairs Kōichirō Gemba summoned the South Korean ambassador to file a complaint and threatened to lodge a case with the International Court of Justice, (ICJ) which was rejected by South Korea. It could do so because both countries party to a dispute must agree to such ICJ cases. It was the first time for Japan to make such a move in 47 years, since Japan and South Korea officially re-established relations in 1965. On August 21, 2012 Japan officially proposed to South Korea that the two countries refer the dispute to the ICJ. Other notable protests featured South Koreans decapitating pheasants in front of the Japanese embassy, and a South Korean soccer player Park Jong-Woo holding up a sign stating "Dokdo is our land", after the bronze medal match with Japan during the 2012 Summer Olympics. It seems that everybody is forgetting that on June 22, 1965, foreign minister Lee Tong-won and his Japanese counterpart Etsusaburo Shiina signed the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea at the official residence of the Japanese prime minister in Tokyo. This put an end to the 14-year-long talks on normalizing bilateral ties.
In return for Japan's promise to pay US$800 million ( in 360 Yen/Dollars) into an economic cooperation fund under the treaty, South Korea agreed to forgo a formal apology from Japan for its past invasion of Korea. The treaty has therefore been seen as humiliating for the past 43 years.
But in May this year, the Institute of Japanese Studies of Kookmin University shed new light on the Korea-Japan talks in 1965 based on its analysis of the entire dossier of about 36,000-page file records. The think tank concluded that the talks were at least to some degree a success for Korea, considering that the government used a tactic of putting pressure on Japan in cooperation with the U.S. and careful preparations by able diplomats increased the amount of reparations.
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